Typ 96 (Transportpanzer)

Der Typ 96 (jap. 96式装輪装甲車, 96-shiki sōrin sōkōsha, dt. „Typ-96-Panzerwagen“) ist ein achträdriger (8×8) allradgetriebener Truppentransportpanzer aus japanischer Produktion. Das Fahrzeug ist nicht amphibisch.

Der Typ 96 ist der modernste Radpanzer im Dienste der japanischen Bodenselbstverteidigungsstreitkräfte. Die Produktion wurde im Jahr 1995 aufgenommen. Von der japanischen Armee wurden 500 Fahrzeuge bestellt. Der Typ 96 wurde bisher nicht exportiert.

Der Typ 96 ist für einen Radpanzer dieser Klasse allenfalls mittelschwer gepanzert. Vorteilhaft ist hingegen die niedrige Fahrzeugsilhouette sweater shaver. Die Bewaffnung besteht aus einem 12,7-mm-Maschinengewehr und einem 40-mm-Granatwerfer. Die Besatzung besteht aus zwei Mann, der Fahrzeuginnenraum bietet noch weiteren acht Soldaten Platz. Der Typ 96 verfügt über eine Dachluke und eine Hecktür.

4 × 4
APE | ATF Dingo | Barracuda | Bastion Patsas | BOV | BRDM-1 | BRDM-2 | BTR-40 | Bushmaster Protected Mobility Vehicle | Casspir | Cheetah MMPV | Cougar H | Didgori | Dzik | Dozor-B | EE-3 Jararaca | ESK Mungo | Fahd | Ferret | FUG | GAZ-2975 Tigr | GAZ-3937 Wodnik | Grizzly APC | HMMWV-M1114 | Marauder | Eagle IV | Enok | Kozak | Fennek | International MXT-MV | International FTTS | Komatsu LAV | M1117 Guardian | Mamba | RG-12 | RG-31 Nyala | RG-32 Scout | Reva 4×4 APC | M706 | Otokar Cobra | Puma (4×4) | Panhard AML | Panhard M3  | Panther | Petit Véhicule Protégé | Saxon | SK-1 | TABC-79 | Tur | UR-416 | VBL | VAB (4×4)

6 × 6
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;| AMX-10 RC | AVGP | Duro 3 | BTR-152 | Buffalo H | Cougar HE | EE-9 Cascavel | EE-11 Urutu | EE-17 Sucuri | ERC-90 Sagaie | Fuchs | FV603 Saracen | GFF 4 | MTVR | Shoet | Pandur II 6×6 | Panhard VCR | Pegaso BMR | Puma (6×6) | Ratel | RG-33 | SIBMAS | Sisu Pasi | Typ 87 | VAB (6×6) | WZ551

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ABC-Aufklärungsfahrzeug 08 | ASLAV | GTK Boxer | BTR-3U | BTR-4 | BTR-60 | BTR-70 | BTR-80 | BTR-90 | BTR-94 | Centauro | CM-32 Yunpao | EBR-75 | Freccia | LAV 25 | LAV III | Lazar BVT | LVS | Luchs | OT-64 SKOT | Patria AMV | Mowag Piranha | Pandur II 8×8 | Rooikat | Stryker | Terrex AV-81 | Typ 96 | VBCI

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Río de Lanata

El río de Lanata (de etimiología incierta) es un río de la comarca del Sobrarbe (provincia de Huesca, Aragón, España), afluente del río Cinca por la parte izquierda, que nace de la bajante meridional de la sierra Ferrera a poca distancia de la localidad de San Juan, en la parte norte de los alrededores de La Fueva, y circula en sentido sur-sudoeste unos 20 km recogiendo el agua de otros barrancos y torrentes que provienen de la misma sierra, hasta que desemboca en el embalse de Mediano a escasos metros por debajo del núcleo de Gerbe. También se le conoce como Las Natas, que se emplea más bien para referirse al congosto por el que este río atraviesa en su último tramo.

El vívero de Lanata se puede encontrar en la zona que se conoce como Espluga Escala, por una cueva habitable que en la bajante sur de la sierra Ferrera

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, por debajo del collado del Hueso Santo. Este espacio es accesible a pie desde San Juan y era el camino tradicional que se empleaba en las localidades que formaron parte del municipio de Toledo de Lanata (que trae el nombre del río), de entre San Victorián y la partida de Foradada del Toscar, para pasar hacia el valle de Espuña, en el que tenían acuerdo para talar madera

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En la actualidad, debido a la existencia del embalse de Mediano, la desembocadura de Lanata en el Cinca se encuentra muchos metros a lo alto de donde se hallaba antes

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. En los años que el nivel del embalse está alto, la desembocadura se sitúa justo debajo de Cherbe, a 8 o 10 metros de altitud por debajo de la localidad, la cual es el nivel más alto que alcanza el pantano. Sin embargo, antiguamente el río discurría pasando de largo y desembocaba en el Cinca en la ribera de Mediano

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Margaret Campbell (politician)

Margaret Campbell (December 15, 1912 – April 19, 1999) was a politician in Ontario, Canada. She was a Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario who represented the downtown Toronto riding of St. George. Prior to her provincial role she served as a municipal councillor in Toronto from 1958 to 1962 and then as a member of the Board of Control from 1964 to 1969. She ran for mayor of Toronto in 1969 but came in second to William Dennison.

Born Margaret Elizabeth Fasken Baird, she was raised in Rosedale and attend Bishop Strachan School, University College and then Osgoode Hall Law School and was called to the bar in 1937. She married filmmaker and aviator Sterling Campbell in 1942. During the Second World War she worked in counter-intelligence for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) sweater shaver.

Her son Sterling Campbell served a term as a Liberal MPP from Sudbury. Campbell had two daughters, Penelope (Bartok) and Susan (Makela).

Her husband ran for city council in the 1956 election, but was unsuccessful. In the next city elections she ran herself, and was victorious in Ward 2. In the 1960 election she finished first in the ward, entitling her a position on Metro Council in addition to the Toronto seat. In 1966 she became the second woman to win a seat on the four member Board of Control and became the city’s budget chief.

In the 1969 election she ran for mayor, attempting to become the first female mayor of the city. Her opponents were the NDP-linked incumbent William Dennison and the official Liberal candidate Stephen Clarkson. Campbell had been a member of the Progressive Conservative party for many years. Her mayoral campaign was run on an explicitly reform platform, calling for an end to megaprojects and the adoption of Jane Jacobs styled urbanism as advocated by David Crombie. She finished second to Dennison, losing by some 13,000 votes.

She briefly left politics to serve as a provincial court judge. When Allan Lawrence retired from the legislature and opened the provincial seat of St. George she resigned her judgeship and ran for the Ontario Liberal Party

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, leaving the Tory party. St. George had been a staunchly Tory seat for decades, and Campbell faced a prominent opponent in Roy McMurtry, but she was victorious becoming the first woman elected to the Ontario Liberal Party. She was re-elected in 1975 and 1977. She represented the riding until 1981, advocating on issues related to poverty, and in favour of women’s and gay rights. She resigned her seat prior to the 1981 election so that she could spend more time with her ailing husband.

In 1984, the Ontario Liberal Party established the Margaret Campbell Fund which supports female candidates who run for the party.

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De speurder in de gevangenis

De speurder in de gevangenis is een hoorspel van Philip Levene. Question of guilt werd door de BBC op 1 januari 1964 uitgezonden. Ben Heuer vertaalde het en de KRO zond het uit op dinsdag 10 juni 1969 in het programma Dinsdagavondtheater

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. De regisseur was Léon Povel. Het hoorspel duurde 67 minuten.

In dit verhaal is de speurder niet een politieman, maar een tot vele jaren veroordeelde misdadiger. Zijn werkterrein ligt uitsluitend tussen de gevangenismuren

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. Hij heeft in dit speciale geval aanleiding gevonden om één keer de taak over te nemen van de beroepsspeurders

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, die op een of andere manier toch een detail over het hoofd moeten hebben gezien, waardoor een nieuwe gevangene tot gevangenisstraf werd veroordeeld. Hij vindt het een intrigerend geval dat hem niet loslaat. Het bewijsmateriaal tegen de nieuwe gevangene is echter onweerlegbaar en wel zo overtuigend dat de veroordeelde zelf geen enkele uitweg meer ziet om zijn eigen bewering te staven dat hij onschuldig is. Daarom is het ook voor de luisteraar zo’n intrigerend geval: hij is geneigd te geloven dat de man werkelijk onschuldig is, maar hoe moet dat dan bewezen worden

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? Temeer nog omdat een gevangene die op eigen houtje aan het speuren gaat niet over de nodige bewegingsvrijheid beschikt…

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Museo Rossimoda della calzatura

The Museo Rossimoda della calzatura trans. Rossimoda Museum of the Shoe is located in the town of Stra in the Province of Venice.

The Museum was founded in 1995 under the will of Luigino Rossi, founder of the shoe company Rossimoda footwear. Originally conceived to document the history of the business of the company, the Museum has taken on a larger role to document the traditional footwear of the Riviera del Brenta, in addition to exhibiting footwear of the ancient Venetian tradition and of internationally recognized designers.

The Museum houses more than 1

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,500 models from fashion designers all over the world. Along the exhibition, there are also works of art, and shoe models by contemporary artists such as Andy Warhol and Allen Jones.

In an exhibition area of 700 square meters, on two floors in the prestigious halls seventeenth century, there are the prototypes of the company of Vigo collaborations with leading fashion houses in the world. The ground floor includes American designers such as Donna Karan, Marc by Marc Jacobs, Porsche and upstairs are rooms with European and Mediterranean designers including Emilio Pucci, Yves Saint Laurent, Givenchy, Dior, Roger Vivier, Fendi

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, Christian Lacroix, Céline, Kenzo who have been devoted more space.

The museum also includes prints, drawings and sculptures from the private collection of art by Luigino Rossi: the original sketches of Lacroix and Karl Lagerfeld, the reproductions of prints by Andy Warhol, and sculptures by Allen Jones and Daniel Spoerri

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17th century man shoe

18th century shoe

19th century clerical shoe

Venetian woman shoe

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F 18 (sommergibile)

dati tratti da e

L’F 18 è stato un sommergibile della Regia Marina

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Nell’ottobre 1917 entrò a far parte, al comando del tenente di vascello Guido Vianello

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, della Squadriglia Sommergibili di Ancona.

Effettuò 6 missioni belliche in acque costiere nemiche.

Il 15 luglio 1918

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, in missione al largo di Punta Planka (Dalmazia), l’F 18 attaccò dapprima un grosso rimorchiatore in navigazione ad un paio di miglia da Zaline, e, nottetempo, si portò all’attacco anche di una torpediniera austro-ungarica: i siluri difettosi impedirono di colpire. Il 16 luglio il sommergibile lanciò un altro siluro contro un mercantile, ma l’arma

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, anch’essa difettosa, deviò dalla sua rotta andando a scoppiare contro la riva.

Dal 1918 al 1922 l’F 18 rimase sotto il controllo del Comando Marittimo di Venezia; passò poi alla Squadriglia Sommergibili di Brindisi.

Nel 1923 prese parte allo sbarco italiano a Corfù, durante la crisi italo-greca che riguardò tale isola.

Operò poi nell’addestramento e prese parte ad esercitazioni ed a gare di attacco e lancio siluri.

Disarmato il 1º novembre 1928, fu radiato due anni dopo e demolito.

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Bedfont

Coordinates:

Bedfont is a suburban district of Hounslow in West London, 13 miles (21 km) WSW of Charing Cross and 2 miles (3 km) from Heathrow Airport. It straddles Staines Road (A305) and the River Crane and includes the area informally known as North Feltham and the neighbourhood of Hatton. Its south-western parks and streets are contiguous with the larger district of Feltham, adjoining Feltham railway station on the Waterloo to Reading Line. Bedfont is also served by Hatton Cross tube station on the Piccadilly line. Bedfont has a large central conservation area around Bedfont Green.

Referred to in the Domesday Book as “Bedefunde”, the name is thought to be derived from Anglo-Saxon Bedfunta = “Bed’s spring”, or Bydenfunta = “spring provided with a drinking-vessel”..

The Staines Road follows the Roman Via Trinobantes colloquially a Stane Street (stone street) linking Londinium (London) to Pontes (Staines-upon-Thames) and the West Country, though the name suggests older origins as the Trinobantes were a powerful Celtic tribe before the Roman invasion. Excavations prior to the building of Heathrow’s Terminal 5 site a few miles north west of Bedfont found evidence of settlement during the Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman periods, suggesting there may have been people living in and around the Bedfont area during these periods.

The hamlet of West Bedfont lay in the parish of neighbouring Stanwell although the boundary may not have been drawn until the 12th century. West Bedfont today is indistinct, however neighbouring East Bedfont

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, on the Greater London side of the boundary, has developed into modern day Bedfont.

The Parish Church of St Mary the Virgin is situated on the edge of the village green and is the oldest surviving church in the borough dating from around 1150. Its Norman chancel, chancel arch and south doorway have survived the centuries, as have medieval wall paintings from the mid 13th century

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, which were uncovered in 1865.

The Domesday Book has an entry stating that the manors of Bedfont, Hatton and Stanmore were all held by William Fitz Other. From the early 14th century the Manor of East Bedfont was held by the Trinitarian Priory of Hounslow, before being taken by the Crown during the reformation. The Berkeley family of Cranford then held the manor before selling it to the Earl of Northumberland in 1656. Pates Manor, architecturally a Grade II listed building also in Bedfont, was held by the Page family, a branch of the Pages of Harrow on the Hill. Col. John Page, a member of the family, became a wealthy Virginia merchant who served on the colonial council.

Charles I licensed the Hounslow Sword Mill in 1630 on the banks of the Duke of Northumberland’s River. The sword smiths, who came from Solingen in Germany, produced one thousand swords a month, which have become collector’s items and an impressive collection of these can be seen at the Gunnersbury Park Museum

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. There is also one on display at Warwick University.

The Longford River, which also flows through Bedfont, also dates from the reign of Charles I.

During the English Civil War, when both the Royalist and Parliamentary armies passed through Bedfont, the mill was taken by Parliamentary forces, and was converted to a gunpowder mill in 1654.

This converted mill was supplemented by new mills closer to Baber Bridge, in the area now known as Donkey Woods. The manufacture of gunpowder was a dangerous occupation and workers were killed or maimed in many explosions down the years, with the mills being demolished and rebuilt a number of times. The water-powered gunpowder mills continued to be used until 1926 when they were closed by the then owners, Imperial Chemical Industries.

Following on from the railways, the twentieth century saw the motor car appearing on the main road, and the building of Great South West Road in 1925 saw traffic diverted around Bedfont.

By 1946 another form of transport began to impact on the village when Heathrow Airport opened and became the largest employer in the area, with the effect of increasing the demand for local housing. The village of Heathrow was lost, as was some of the hamlet of Hatton. This sits beneath the airport’s flight path, but The Green Man public house survives from around the 16th century together with a few period properties near the pub and London Underground station on the edge of the airport

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Bedfont has the unique claim of having two surviving manor houses. Pates Manor, once owned by the Page family, is behind the church and is the oldest house in the Borough with one wing dating from the late 15th century. Fawns Manor, on the south side of the Green, dates from the 16th century and was sold to the British Airways Housing Association in 1983 . by Derek Sherborn, of the family who had owned it from the 17th century.

As coach services grew from the 17th to 18th centuries, so too did the number of inns in Bedfont. The Duke’s Head and The Bell were on Bedfont Green, and The Plough, The Sun, The White Horse and the Queen’s Head joined them in providing stabling and refreshments to the weary travellers on the road between London and the West Country. Only The Bell survives today from this group, latterly known as the “Bell on the Green”.

The building of the Great Western Railway between London and Bristol in 1841 marked the beginning of the end for the golden age of the stagecoach, and by 1847 both state and mail coaches had ceased to run to the west. The Waterloo to Staines line was opened in 1848 leaving the roads mainly for the use of local traffic.

There are also many leisure clubs and pubs in Bedfont, one being the Bedfont Lane Community Association.

Captain Matthew Webb, who was the first man to swim the English Channel (25 August 1875), lived in The Limes, New Road, Bedfont from 1880 until 1883 when he died attempting to swim the rapids below the Niagara Falls.

Bedfont has two Non-League football teams :

Burlington House is one of the largest Georgian homes in the Conservation Area. A significant proportion of such homes in the London Commuter Belt have been converted into apartments.

Gable end terraced housing with steep, tall hipped roofs by the war memorial with tessellating paving, square green and trees in the background.

Media related to Bedfont at Wikimedia Commons

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Oriole blackbird

The oriole blackbird (Gymnomystax mexicanus) is a species of bird in the family Icteridae

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. Its genus, Gymnomystax, is monotypic

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. It is a medium-sized yellow and black bird found in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela, where its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests

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, subtropical or tropical moist shrubland, subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, and swamps.

The oriole blackbird grows to a length of nearly 30 cm (12 in). The sexes are similar in appearance. The head, neck, shoulders and underparts are bright yellow; the back, wings, rump and tail are black, apart from the lower wing-coverts showing a strip of yellow. The eye is brown and is surrounded by a black eye ring, and the large bill and feet are blackish. The voice consists of several loud, scratchy calls, uttered from elevated perches or emitted when on the wing. One is a screech that resembles the sound made by a rusty hinge.

This icterid is found in the northern part of South America. Its range includes French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and northern Brazil. Its typical habitat is grassy areas with isolated trees near rivers, marshes, islands in rivers and gallery forest.

The oriole blackbird is usually seen in pairs or small groups but does not form mixed species flocks. It perches in prominent positions on small trees or on the top of bushes and forages mostly on the ground, especially in muddy areas near water. They feed on invertebrates such as earthworms, caterpillars and winged insects, as well as frogs and fruit, and sometimes tear open ripening maize cobs to feed on the seeds.

Breeding takes place in May and June. The nest is a cup-shaped structure about 17 centimetres (7 in) in diameter, loosely woven out of dry grass and weed stems, and lined with rootlets. The eggs are pale blue with black, brown and lilac blotches and spots

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. The shiny cowbird, a brood parasite, sometimes lays its egg in an oriole blackbird’s nest. The incubation period is about 18 days and the incubation is done solely by the female. Both parents join in feeding the chicks with small invertebrates and frogs which are not regurgitated but brought whole to the nest in the parent’s beak.

G. mexicanus is a fairly common species and has a very extensive range. Its total population has not been estimated but its population trend seems to be steady. For these reasons, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as being of “least concern”.

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Africa subsahariana

Per Africa subsahariana si intende la parte del continente africano situata a sud del Deserto del Sahara. Alcuni considerano il Sahel come parte dell’area geografico-culturale del Sahara, e quindi escludono questa fascia dall’Africa subsahariana propriamente detta.

L’Africa subsahariana viene talvolta indicata anche come Africa nera

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; questa espressione, diffusa in passato

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, è oggi considerata desueta e impropria.

Se si considera l’Africa a sud del deserto del Sahara, la regione misura 24,3 milioni di km quadrati. Questo equivale a 2,5 volte l’area totale dell’Europa. L’Africa subsahariana presenta una miriade di ecosistemi diversi. La morfologia è altrettanto varia. Si va dalle savane alle foreste tropicali, dai deserti alle catene montuose, dagli acrocori ai vulcani, dagli altopiani alle isole coralline. Alcuni fiumi – Nilo, Congo, Zambesi – sono tra i più lunghi del mondo e sono anche importanti vie di comunicazione.

Le più alte montagne si trovano lungo la Rift Valley, la lunga spaccatura che dal monte Mulanje, al confine tra Mozambico e Malawi, va sino al nord della Siria. È questa una zona di rilevante attività sismica con molti vulcani attivi, e altri spenti. I monti più alti sono: il Kilimangiaro (5895 m di altitudine) in Tanzania e il Monte Kenya (5199 m di altitudine) nello stato omonimo, il Ruwenzori (5110 m di altitudine) in Uganda. Nell’Africa dell’ovest si trova il Camerun (4070 m di altitudine).

Non mancano i deserti, da quelli piccoli – solitamente continuazione di savane particolarmente aride – dell’Africa Orientale, al deserto del Kalahari nell’Africa Australe. Foreste tropicali coprono gran parte dell’Africa Centrale e Occidentale. Notevole per area e complessità biologica è il sistema del bacino del Congo.

L’Africa ha uno sviluppo costiero limitato, in relazione alla sua superficie totale. Importanti sono gli sviluppi costieri di mangrovie e delle barriere coralline. Esistono vari arcipelaghi – per esempio Comore e Seychelles – ma l’unica isola di grandi dimensioni è il Madagascar che si distingue anche per la sua popolazione e cultura, una raro mix di etnie africane e asiatiche.

Tra i fiumi, Niger (4.160 km) e Congo (4.200 km) sfociano nell’Oceano Atlantico I numerosi affluenti del Congo formano un enorme bacino fluviale. Nell’area australe scorrono l’Orange e lo Zambesi, l’unico grande fiume a sfociare nell’Oceano Indiano. Sempre nel sud, l’Okavango ha il delta nel deserto del Kalahari.

Il principale fiume africano, per storia e numero di paesi che interessa con il suo bacino e le sue possibilità di via di comunicazione, rimane il Nilo. Esiste un contenzioso tra Nilo (6,671 km) e Rio delle Amazzoni sul quale sia il fiume più lungo del mondo. Tutto dipende da dove si individuano le fonti del fiume. Impresa difficile visto che ambedue i corsi d’acqua possono vantare innumerevoli, e lunghi, affluenti. Il Nilo che ha il delta nel Mar Mediterraneo – unico fiume a collegare l’Africa subsahariana al nord del continente – è il risultato della confluenza di due fiumi: il Nilo azzurro, che nasce dall’altopiano Etiopico, e il Nilo bianco, emissario del lago Vittoria il cui tributario, il Kagera, origina dagli altopiani del Burundi.

Lungo la Rift Valley si trovano anche numerosi laghi, tra cui molti salati. I più importanti sono il Lago Vittoria e il Lago Tanganica. Tra i laghi salati vanno ricordati i laghi Magadi e Nakuru in Kenya, e il Natron in Tanzania.

La Rift Valley detiene un primato importante: è il luogo dove è nata l’umanità. I più antichi reperti di ominidi e di esseri umani moderni sono stati trovati nel Rift in Tanzania, Kenya ed Etiopia. Recenti scoperte di ominidi in Ciad dimostrano quanto vasta fosse l’area occupata dai progenitori della razza umana. Gli antropologi pensano che i primi esseri umani abbiano lasciato il continente passando per le coste del Corno d’Africa. Il livello del mare era allora più basso e dalle coste delle attuali Somalia ed Eritrea sarebbe stato possibile raggiungere la penisola arabica senza l’ausilio di imbarcazioni.

In tempi preistorici, vari movimenti di popoli hanno permesso il popolamento del continente. Occorre anche tener conto del fatto che il deserto del Sahara era fertile e abitato fino al neolitico. Il progressivo inaridimento dell’area è stato uno dei fattori che ha spinto le popolazioni a cercare nuovi luoghi da colonizzare. In modo molto generale si può dire che le popolazioni più antiche siano quelle di tipo pigmeo. Le popolazioni sudaniche si sono spinte dal bacino del Nilo verso l’ovest; quelle bantu dall’area saheliana all’ovest e poi verso il sud; i nilotici dal corso del Nilo a sud. Popolazioni asiatiche hanno colonizzato il Madagascar, e dalla penisola arabica sono penetrate nel Corno d’Africa. L’Africa subsahariana ha sempre avuto un collegamento mercantile con l’Asia, lungo le coste, anche se non esistono documenti certi fino all’anno mille, per quanto riguarda il commercio di matrice araba. Erodoto narra che

Fenici, greci e romani avevano una buona conoscenza dell’Africa settentrionale, mentre poco conoscevano dell’Africa a sud del Sahara. È comunque accertato che mercanti greci visitavano i porti africani fino all’Eritrea. Nella letteratura romana si hanno accenni a spedizioni lungo il corso del Nilo e sulle coste dell’attuale Kenya. Col tempo, l’Africa subsahariana ha visto la nascita di vari imperi: quelli del Mali, Ghana e Songhai. Anche tra le popolazioni bantu si sono venuti a formare regni importanti per estensione e tecnologia – Grande Zimbabwe, regni del Congo – . Quello della centralizzazione del potere con la nascita di nazioni-stato era un movimento ancora in atto al tempo delle colonizzazioni europee (XIX-XX secolo). Sebbene l’Africa subsahariana sia rimasta in gran parte isolata da altre popolazioni e culture fino a tempi recenti, non va dimenticata l’influenza arabo-islamica sulle coste e isole orientali, con la nascita delle culture shirazi e swahili; dei contatti con mercanti e viaggiatori indiani; delle spedizioni cinesi che hanno raggiunto le coste del Kenya e della Tanzania.

Non va inoltre dimenticata l’esplorazione delle coste compiuta dai portoghesi a partire dal XV secolo. I portoghesi cercavano una via alternativa all’India e ai mercati orientali per poter evitare la mediazione dei mercanti islamici e quella delle repubbliche marinare italiane. Per aprire una via africana all’Asia, i portoghesi esplorarono tutta la costa e impiantarono delle piccole colonie presso gli approdi più facili. I portoghesi non esplorarono l’interno, se non in casi particolari. La tratta atlantica degli schiavi per rifornire le colonie del Sudamerica prima, e quelle del Nordamerica, poi, ebbe inizio in questi secoli.

Il colonialismo europeo iniziò verso la metà dell’800 ed è durato fino agli anni 60 del secolo scorso. Portoghesi, francesi, belgi, inglesi, spagnoli, tedeschi e italiani fecero a gara per spartirsi l’Africa, nonostante la Conferenza di Berlino del 1884-85 avesse deciso poco o nulla al riguardo. Al periodo coloniale si devono gli stati attuali, le divisioni di popolazioni fatte con criteri di controllo – divide et impera – e di convenienza economica. Le lingue ufficiali dei paesi subsahariani riflettono quelle dei paesi colonizzatori.

La popolazione dell’Africa subsahariana era di 770,3 milioni di persone nel 2006. Di questi, circa lo 0,5% sono di origine europea e il 2% di origine asiatica. Il tasso annuo di crescita della popolazione è del 2.3%. L’ONU prevede che la regione avrà una popolazione di 1,5 miliardi di persone entro il 2050. La maggior parte della popolazione è nomade.

Le più importanti economie dell’Africa subsahariana sono quelle del Sudafrica – che da sola rappresenta il 60% dell’economia della regione – della Nigeria e del Kenya. Nella regione si trovano anche i paesi più poveri del mondo. In questa parte dell’Africa convivono economie di sussistenza (economie che permettono alle famiglie di sopravvivere con produzioni di autoconsumo) con moderne economie di scambio.

Ci sono 48 (49 se consideriamo anche la Mauritania) nazioni nella regione, di cui 6 sono nazioni insulari.

Territori

Altri progetti

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Sergei Alexandrowitsch Kirdjapkin

Sergei Alexandrowitsch Kirdjapkin (russisch Сергей Александрович Кирдяпкин; * 18. Juni 1980 in Insar, Mordwinische ASSR, Russische SFSR, UdSSR) ist ein russischer Leichtathlet.

Er gewann bei den Leichtathletik-Weltmeisterschaften 2005 in Helsinki Gold über 50 km Gehen. Auch bei den Weltmeisterschaften 2009 in Berlin konnte er die Goldmedaille gewinnen.

Er ist 1,78 m groß und wiegt 66 kg.

Im Januar 2015 wurde er wegen Auffälligkeiten in seinem Biologischen Pass rückwirkend zum 15. Oktober 2012 für drei Jahre und zwei Monate gesperrt und alle Ergebnisse zwischen dem 20. Juli 2009 und dem 20. September 2009, zwischen dem 29. Juni 2010 und dem 29. August 2010 sowie zwischen dem 17. Dezember 2011 und dem 11. Juni 2012 gestrichen, also auch der Weltmeistertitel 2009. Somit hätte er seine olympische Goldmedaille von 2012 behalten. Der Weltverband IAAF legte gegen diese Entscheidung beim Internationalen Sportgerichtshof Einspruch ein. Diesem Einspruch wurde am 24. März 2016 stattgegeben.

1976: Weniamin Soldatenko | 1983: Ronald Weigel | 1987: Hartwig Gauder | 1991: Aljaksandr Pataschou | 1993: Jesús Ángel García | 1995: Valentin Kononen | 1997: Robert Korzeniowski | 1999: Ivano Brugnetti | 2001: Robert Korzeniowski | 2003: Robert Korzeniowski&nbsp

Real Madrid Club de Fútbol Away MARCELO 12 Jerseys

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;| 2005: Sergei Kirdjapkin | 2007: Nathan Deakes | 2009: Sergei Kirdjapkin&nbsp

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;| 2011: Sergei Bakulin | 2013: Robert Heffernan | 2015: Matej Tóth

Liste der Weltmeister in der Leichtathletik

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