A Question of Attribution

A Question of Attribution is a 1988 one-act stage play, written by Alan Bennett. It was premièred at the National Theatre, London in December 1988

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, along with the stage version of An Englishman Abroad. The two plays are collectively called Single Spies.
The one-act play formed the basis of a 1991 television film of the same name broadcast as part of the BBC’s Screen One series. The film was directed by John Schlesinger and stars James Fox as Anthony Blunt, David Calder as Chubb, an MI5 officer, and Prunella Scales as ‘H.M.Q.’ (Queen Elizabeth II). The film was produced by long-time Bennett collaborator Innes Lloyd, and is dedicated to his memory.
The New York Times called the film a “razor-sharp psychological melodrama” and it won the 1992 BAFTA TV award for Best Single Drama. Prunella Scales was nominated for Best Actress.

The play and subsequent film is based on Anthony Blunt’s role in the Cambridge Spy Ring and, as Surveyor of the Queen’s Pictures, personal art advisor to Queen Elizabeth II. It portrays his interrogation by MI5 officers, his work researching and conserving art works, his work at the Courtauld Institute, and his acquaintance with the Queen. Bennett described the piece as an “inquiry in which the circumstances are imaginary but the pictures are real.”
While supervising the restoration of a dual portrait in which only partial attribution to Titian is thought credible, Blunt discovers a third figure that had been painted over by an unknown artist, and concludes by comparison with a better known triple portrait in London’s National Gallery (Allegory of Prudence) that the newly revealed third figure was Titian’s son. As Blunt’s public exposure as a spy in 1979 draws near, the play suggests that he has been made a scapegoat to protect others in the security service. At the end of the film, the time of Blunt’s exposure, Blunt tells Chubb that X-rays had revealed the presence of a fourth and fifth man.
One of the sub-texts in the scene with the Queen is whether or not Her Majesty knew that Blunt was a former Soviet spy. They briefly discuss the Dutch Vermeer forger Han van Meegeren, and how his paintings now look like fakes, but were accepted as genuine in the (early) 1940s, and touch on the nature of fakes and secrets. After she has left and an assistant asks what they were talking about, Blunt replies “I was talking about art. I’m not sure that she was.”

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Ithaca, Michigan

Ithaca is a small town in Michigan located very near the geographical center of the state’s lower peninsula. The population was 2,910 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Gratiot County.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.28 square miles (13.68 km2), of which 5.23 square miles (13.55 km2) is land and 0.05 square miles (0.13 km2) is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 2,910 people, 1,188 households, and 765 families residing in the city. The population density was 556.4 inhabitants per square mile (214.8/km2). There were 1,293 housing units at an average density of 247.2 per square mile (95.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 94.7% White, 0.5% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 1.5% from other races, and 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.2% of the population.
There were 1,188 households of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 35.6% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88.
The median age in the city was 39.2 years. 23.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.2% were from 25 to 44; 26.7% were from 45 to 64; and 15.2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52

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.5% female.
Ithaca has four parks within the city limits. These include the Woodland Park, Atkinson Park, McNabb Park, and the newly created Ithaca Dog Park. Woodland park is a large park for children, including a playscape and lots of other playground equipments like slides and swings. The park also has a large sledding hill and an ice skating rink. Inside the Woodland park to the North end site the Ithaca Dog park which was started and finished in the summer of 2012. Atkinson Park is much quieter and is a senior favorite as it is very close to the community Senior Center and senior housing. McNabb Park can be found in the South of the town and is home to many events throughout the year, including the Gratiot Agricultural Society Expo and AYSO soccer games. McNabb park also has several biking and hiking paths to enjoy.
Ithaca has one unified public school system, which is spread out over three buildings. The school mascot is Jack, a YellowJacket The high school has tennis facilities which host matches with area teams as well as a public swimming pool which is open to the Public during the summer months. Competitive swimming events are not held at the public pool. The school’s football and soccer stadium was recently renovated with funding from both public and private donors. The stadium was completed over the course of the summer of 2012 and features renovated concessions and bathroom facilities, as well as renovated seating and a new concourse.
5 time Division 6 football state champions
1 time cross country state champions
Along with the Native Americans, the first recorded settler in Ithaca was James J. Bush from Howell, Michigan in 1850. John Jeffery, from New York State, bought land in 1853, and permanently relocated on the land in 1855. He platted the area in 1856, assisted by Sidney S. Hastings, calling it Gratiot Center and laying out streets, lots, blocks, and even alleys. Gratiot Center was the name of its first post office, granted on November 16, 1855 with John Knight as the first postmaster. In 1856 the site was named as the county seat of Gratiot County. The settlement’s name was changed on April 13, 1857 to Ithaca, after Ithaca, New York. Ithaca was incorporated as a village in 1869 and became a city in 1961.
Coordinates: 43°17′30″N 84°36′27″W / 43.29167°N 84.60750°W / 43.29167; -84.60750

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Derventio Brigantum

Derventio, sometimes described as Derventio Brigantium (Latin for “Derventio of the Brigantes”) in order to distinguish it from other places called Derventio, was a Roman fort and settlement located beneath the modern town of Malton in North Yorkshire, England. The fort is positioned 18 miles[dubious – discuss] north-east of Eboracum on the River Derwent.

The Roman name for the Malton military complex first appears in the Antonine Itinerary of the late-second century. It is also mentioned in the 4th/5th century Notitia Dignitatum as Deruentione – the last auxiliary garrison “at the disposal of the Right Honourable Duke of the Britains”.
Initial investigations at the site were undertaken by Philip Corder and John Kirk in the 1930s. The excavated material from this site formed the core collection of the Malton Museum. These excavations took in both the defences and interior buildings of the north-east corner of the fort and trial trenches in the south-west of the fort. A further series of excavations between 1949 and 1952 by the Ministry of Works in the civilian settlement uncovered multiple phases of activity as well as a road, several buildings and a mosaic.
Timber and stone structures were identified during excavations on the fort in 1970 by Leslie Peter Wenham. A complex building sequence was revealed, with major phases occurring during the Trajanic, Severan, Constantian and Theodosian periods. The south and west defences of an early Roman military work were confirmed beneath the vicus buildings, very likely a southern annexe of the known fort. These additional defences comprised pf a turf rampart 16 ft (4.9m) wide, backing a ditch 6 ft (1.8m) wide and 3½ft (1.2m) deep.
The earliest secure construction of a fort at Malton was in the AD 70s under Agricola, contemporary with the nearby fortress at Eboracum. Built on the north side of the River Derwent, this original phase was in timber, with the wall being rebuilt in stone in the early second century. The presence of the Ala shows that for at least part of its history, Derventio was capable of housing a mounted cavalry unit.
Only a single unit has been clearly associated with occupation at this site, the Ala Gallorum Picentiana (The Picentine wing of Gauls). The single record of this unit is an altar dedicated by the Prefect Candidus, from the ruins of the Severan bathhouse. It remains unclear when the Ala Gallorum Picentiana were first established at Malton and when they left.
As with many Roman forts, a civilian settlement grew up around the established military base

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. The evidence at Malton shows extramural settlement surrounding the south gate of the fort and crossing to the south side of the river, following the roads leading away from the fort. Many buildings were discovered, the most elaborate of which was found some 150 ft south of the fort, measured 90 ft by 30 ft and included heated floors. One mid-second century structure contained circular baking ovens. To the west of the road a series of rectangular buildings of an average size of 25 by 40 ft stood closely compacted together and have been interpreted as workshops or store-houses; most of the pottery from this area, including much local ware, and coin evidence dates this area to the second half of the third and the first half of the fourth century. It has been suggested that a spring in the north-east of the civilian settlement may have been the source for the bath-house, although the structure has not been located. A canal, dug in 1810, destroyed any of the structures which may have been close to the line of the river.
The fort lies on the north banks of the River Derwent, the civilian settlement on the south site. The Roman road network provides access to the east coast and to larger settlements like Eboracum.
Evidence exists for the working of bronze, iron and pewter. The locally sourced jet was worked at the site into jewellery. A single inscription, from beneath the New Malton Church, offered a dedication to the Genius of the place and to wish good luck to a young slave inheriting a goldsmith’s shop, an otherwise unique inscription in Roman Britain.
No temples are currently known from Derventio. A single inscription is dedicated to Mars Rigus.
A motte-and-bailey castle was built by the de Vesci family over the west corner of the Roman fort in the 11th Century. This was demolished in the 17th century when a mansion was built on the site by Lord Eure. The Dark Age settlement is the setting for much of the action in ‘An East Wind Blowing’ by Australian author Mel Keegan.
The original earthworks are still visible in the centre of the modern town in an area known as ‘Orchard Fields’. Collections from excavations at Derventio formed part of the Malton Museum. The museum closed in 2012 and is temporarily exhibiting some material in the Parish Rooms, Malton. Roman material from Malton can also be found in the Yorkshire Museum.

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Brit (comics)

Robert Kirkman
Brit is a fictional character, a superhero in the Image Comics Universe. He first appeared in Brit (July 2003), and was created by Robert Kirkman and Tony Moore.

Brit starred in three one-shots: Brit (July 2003), Brit: Cold Death (December 2003), Brit: Red, White, Black and Blue (August 2004). Robert Kirkman wrote the three one-shots with Tony Moore illustrating the first and second issue and with Cliff Rathburn on the third. The one-shots have been collected in a trade paperback and was released in March 2007.
In August 2007, Brit was launched as an ongoing full-color series written by Bruce Brown and features Rathburn’s debut as an ongoing series artist. The series was overseen and edited by Kirkman. As of the second issue, Andy Kuhn came aboard as the series’ breakdown artist. In the seventh issue, Rathburn was replaced by Nate Bellegarde as the new artist. The series expanded Brit’s universe by introducing his brother and Sister and also revealed the origin of his powers.
The series was brought to a close with issue #12, because, according to Kirkman, “the book sells a fraction of what Invincible, The Walking Dead and The Astounding Wolf-Man sell. But I could have kept it going. I blame a horrendous shipping schedule for the low sales.

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.. something that I must shoulder the bulk of the blame for.”
On March 21, 2010, Brit was announced as the first member of the newly reformed Guardians of the Globe which will star in a six issue mini-series starting in August 2010.
Brit’s main superhuman ability is that of invulnerability. His body is totally impervious to any and every kind of physical injury and the limits of his invulnerability are unknown. Unlike many superheroes depicted with invulnerability, Brit does not show any degree of superhuman strength; he is only as strong as a regular human male relative to his physique. Brit’s powers are the result of a serum developed by his father some time before World War I and in addition to invulnerability, the serum also slowed his aging process.
The comics have been collected into trade paperback:

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José Antonio Colado

José Antonio Colado Castro (born October 30, 1976 in Seville) is a retired Spanish sport shooter. He has been selected to compete for Spain in pistol shooting at the 2004 Summer Olympics, and has attained top 8 finishes in a major international competition, spanning the Mediterranean Games and the ISSF World Cup series. Colado also trains under head coach Cezary Staniszewski for twelve years as a full-fledged member of the Spanish pistol shooting team.
Colado qualified for the Spanish team in pistol shooting at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. He managed to get a minimum qualifying score of 578 to gain an Olympic quota place for Spain in the air pistol, following his outside-final finish at the European Championships in Gothenburg, Sweden one year earlier. In the 10 m air pistol, held on the first day of the Games, Colado shot a total of 572 to force a two-way tie with host nation Greece’s Dionissios Georgakopoulos for a lowly thirty-third place

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, slashing six points off from his entry standard. Three days later, in the 50 m pistol, Colado put up another dismal display from his air pistol feat to end up in a thirty-fourth place tie with Cuba’s Norbelis Bárzaga at 542, trailing his fellow marksman Isidro Lorenzo by a wide, twenty-point gap.
In early 2015, Colado served full-time as the sports technical director of the pistol team for the Royal Spanish Olympic Shooting Federation (Spanish: Real Federación Española de Tiro Olímpico), just eleven years since his immediate Olympic debut.

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The Nativity Story

The Nativity Story is a 2006 epic biblical drama film based on the nativity of Jesus starring Keisha Castle-Hughes and Shohreh Aghdashloo. Filming began on May 1, 2006, in Matera, Italy, and Ouarzazate, Morocco. Other scenes were shot in Craco, a ghost town in the Italian region of Basilicata, and Cinecittà, Rome. New Line Cinema released it on December 1, 2006, in the United States and one week later on December 8 in the European Union. The film premiered in Vatican City November 27, 2006. The Nativity Story was the first film to hold its world premiere in Vatican City.[citation needed]

The plot begins with the portrayal of the Massacre of the Innocents in the Nativity

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. The remainder of the movie portrays the annunciation (conception) and birth of Jesus Christ to explain why King Herod the Great (Ciarán Hinds) ordered the murder.
The film then goes back one year before the massacre, to Jerusalem where Zachariah is a rabbi and making an offering, when he gets told by the Archangel Gabriel that his wife will bear a son by a vision. He states that he is too old, and is told by Gabriel that he will be unable to speak until the boy is born. It then goes to the town of Nazareth, where a teenaged girl named Mary (Keisha Castle-Hughes) is farming, and soldiers come to collect taxes, one man, who is unable to pay, has a third of his land seized and his daughter pressed into debt slavery to pay his debt. Mary is then, betrothed to marry Joseph of Judaea (Oscar Isaac), is visited by the Angel Gabriel and told that she will become pregnant with God’s son, whom she is to name “Jesus”. He then tells that her God has blessed her cousin Elizabeth (Shohreh Aghdashloo) with a child despite her old age. Mary asks her parents and Joseph could she visit with Elizabeth before the harvest, where she witnesses the birth of John the Baptist to Elizabeth and her husband the priest Zachariah (Stanley Townsend), who regains his speech after he refused to believe the Angel Gabriel’s news that he would have a son. Mary returns from the visit pregnant, to the shock of Joseph and her parents, who fear that Joseph will accuse her of fornication, a sin punishable with death by stoning according to the Mosaic Law. At first Joseph does not believe Mary’s explanation that she was visited by the angel Gabriel, but decides not to accuse her. Although he is still shocked and angry, Joseph is later visited in a dream by the Angel Gabriel, who tells him of God’s plan for Mary’s son. Joseph then believes Mary, and is ashamed for his earlier doubts.
Meanwhile, Caesar Augustus, the Roman emperor, has demanded that every man and his family across the Roman Empire must return to his place of birth for the census. As a direct descendant of King David, Joseph is forced to travel 110 kilometers (68 mi) across Palestine’s rocky terrain from Nazareth to Bethlehem, the place of his birth. With Mary on a donkey laden with supplies, the couple took nearly four weeks to reach Bethlehem. Upon arriving in town, Mary goes into labour, and Joseph frantically seeks a place for her to deliver. There is, however, no room in any inn or home partly because of the census, but at the last minute an innkeeper offers his stable for shelter.
Meanwhile, three Magi named Gaspar, Melchior and Balthasar, travel towards Judaea after having previously discovered that three planets will align to form a great star. This Star of Bethlehem appears before the Magi, after a visit by the Angel Gabriel. The Magi visit King Herod the Great and reveal to him that the Messiah is still a child and he will be a Messiah ‘for the lowest of men to the highest of kings’. Shocked by this, Herod asks that they visit the newborn Messiah and report the child’s location back to him, under the pretence that he, too, would like to worship him (what the Magi did not know was that Herod wanted to kill the baby for fear of a new king taking his throne). Later, the Magi arrive at the stable in which Mary is giving birth to Jesus, and they present the Infant with gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.
After having been warned by the Angel in a dream, the Magi avoid Herod, but return to their home via a different route. King Herod realises that the Magi have tricked him, and carries out his plan of killing every boy in Bethlehem under the age of two. Joseph is warned in a dream of the danger and flees to Egypt with Mary and Jesus until Herod the Great dies and his two remaining sons (Herod was so paranoid that he killed his own wives, sons, and daughters) named Archelaus and Antipas take over his kingdom and Rome divides the kingdom- Archelaus gets the kingdom of Jerusalem, Bethlahem and Antipas gets the kingdom of Nazareth, Gailee. At the end of the movie, Joseph, Mary, and Jesus return; but do not go to Bethlehem for fear of Herod’s oldest son and instead go to Nazareth.
The Nativity Story opened to a modest first weekend at the domestic box office by grossing $7.8 million, with a 39% increase over the extended Christmas weekend. After its initial run, the film closed out with about $37.6 million in domestic gross and $8.8 million in foreign gross, resulting in a worldwide total of almost $46.4 million on a reported $35 million budget.
The movie received mixed reviews. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 38% of 128 film critics have given the film a positive review, with a rating average of 5.3 out of 10. Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, gives the film a score of 52 based on 28 reviews.
A. O. Scott of The New York Times gave the film a positive review saying, “At its best, The Nativity Story shares with Hail Mary an interest in finding a kernel of realism in the old story of a pregnant teenager in hard times. Buried in the pageantry, in other words, is an interesting movie.” Ann Hornaday of The Washington Post concluded a positive review of the film stating, “The most intriguing thing about The Nativity Story transpires during the couple’s extraordinary personal journey, advancing a radical idea in an otherwise long slog of a cinematic Sunday school lesson: that Jesus became who He was not only because He was the son of God, but because He was the son of a good man.”
Conversely, many critics felt that the film did not take the story to new cinematic heights. Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly noted, “The Nativity Story is a film of tame picture-book sincerity, but that’s not the same thing as devotion. The movie is too tepid to feel, or see, the light.” Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times said, “This is not a chance to ‘experience the most timeless of stories as you’ve never seen it before’ but just the opposite: an opportunity, for those who want it, to encounter this story exactly the way it’s almost always been told.”
Keisha Castle-Hughes became pregnant during filming and received a lot of media attention.
Mychael Danna’s score of the film was released as an album on December 5, 2006. The album was nominated for a Dove Award for Instrumental Album of the Year at the 39th GMA Dove Awards.
An album of songs inspired by the film was also released under the title The Nativity Story: Sacred Songs. It featured music by artists like Point of Grace, Amy Grant, Jaci Velasquez, and others.

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Richard Roach Jewell

Richard Roach Jewell (1810 in Barnstaple, Devon, England – 1891 in Perth, Western Australia) was an architect who designed many of the important public buildings in Perth during the latter half of the nineteenth century. He was employed to supervise many major building projects around England, churches in Bristol, Cardiff, Clifton, Eye, Horsley and Stroudswater. As well as churches he also supervised construction of Stanstead College, a military prison in Gosport and fortifications at Portland Castle and Southsea Castle. He was also employed as a clerk of works in the offices of Sir Charles Barry.

Richard Roach Jewell was born in 1810 in Barnstaple, Devon, England. He was trained as an architect/builder in Barnstaple in Devonshire.
In 1852 Jewell emigrated to Western Australia to seek a more temperate climate for his frail wife. They arrived in Fremantle, Western Australia on the Will Watch on 24 February 1852.
Jewell was initially employed in the Imperial Convict Establishment, which was established to manage British convicts which had started arriving in 1850 (see: Convict era of Western Australia). The Fremantle based Convict Establishment was responsible for many large constructions in the colony with an already well established design department in the offices of the Royal Engineers headed by James Manning as Clerk of Works. Jewell soon transferred to the expanding Department of Public Works based in Perth and was appointed foreman in January 1853 at a salary of £150. In a letter to family in England dated 4 February Jewell comment on his salary
…I only get the £150 and no allowance for lodging, but taking into consideration the differences in prices of provisions and house rent(as it much cheaper here than at Fremantle) it makes but a few pounds a year difference. I like my situation much altho [sic] my duties call forth all my exertions to keep them well and faithfully performed.
In the same letter Jewell wrote of his position and future aspirations

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;
…You probably may think that I rank rather low by only being able to write at the end of my name F.P.W. Why is it, we have no clerk of works for the local Govt. and altho [sic] F.P.W I stand second in command, and first preferment, which I trust is not far distant, will then bring me to the top of the tree…
He did not have long to wait, for in June 1853 the Superintendent of Public Works, James Austin resigned after a long-running battle with Governor Charles Fitzgerald over pay and conditions. Jewell was appointed to the position at an increased salary of £175 with an additional £25 for being Superintendent of Towns.
Jewell’s duties initially included overseeing repairs of buildings, roads and bridges, and supervising the construction of the boys’ schools in Perth and Fremantle. He was soon given the task of designing major buildings such as Perth Gaol and the court-house. Jewell was said to have worked hard and long into the night with his book-keeping duties. In 1853 he wrote to Governor Fitzgerald:
I have the honour to submit for the consideration and approval off His Excellency the Governor that he will be pleased to grant an allowance for candles used in writing the Public accounts done after office hours, as it is impossible to get the same performed during the day without neglecting other duties…
With the arrival of 300 convicts and ticket of leave persons Perth had the labour necessary to commence building many substantial projects the first of these Jewell worked on were the Claisebrook Abbatoirs, of which only drawings survive and the Colonial School on St Georges Terrace that now houses the National Trust. The Colonial School was built in two stages the first being completed in 1854 and two wings were added in 1868 giving it a rough crucifix form. To provide for the convicts Jewell designed the Perth Gaol in 1854, all of these building utilised limestone carted by barges from quarries at Rocky Bay.
With the colony lacking in funds Jewell turned to brick construction, James Brittain had already established a brick yard in East Perth supplying a wide range of wood fired bricks. The first major brick project by Jewell was Bishop Hale’s Collegiate School of 1858. This building was designed based on a pattern already established with King’s School in Parramatta, New South Wales and St Peters College in Adelaide, South Australia. Bishop Blagdon Hale paid for the building of the school out of his own purse requesting an English-Gothic design, the building became known as The Cloisters due to effect of the ground floor verandahs.
The Cloisters uses a patterned brick style set in Flemish bond with diaper patterns to selected panels, the building was first classified by the National Trust in 1973 and together with the a joining Port Jackson Fig Tree was placed on the permanent heritage register on 20 October 1995. The Cloisters is the oldest building designed by Jewell still standing at its original location. With the building of the Hammersley Iron offices in the early 1980s behind The Cloisters the area is now known as Cloisters Square.
Government house was designed by Officers of the Royal Engineers and James Manning with building commencing 1859. The Convict Establishment was based in Fremantle, so Jewell was appointed to supervise the construction. Jewell amended many of the details during construction, citing a common architectural ploy by continually commenting on the lack of information or drawings provided by Manning. This method enabled Jewell to substantially personalise the building to his tastes, with the building being completed in 1864.
The Perth Town Hall built between 1867 and 1870, was to break from the normal Tudor Gothic designs by using a Flemish style of brick work with French influences. The overall designs are credited to Jewell though Manning was again involved with its building and its generally recognised that the roofing structure was Manning’s designs.
Jewell oversaw construction projects for over 30 years in Western Australia and many important buildings still standing were designed by him. In Perth, these include the Wesley Church, Public Trust Office, the Treasury Buildings, Pensioners’ Barracks (Barracks Arch) and The Deanery. Outside Perth, notable buildings included Toodyay gaol, Roebourne residency and police station, Greenough police station and Geraldton hospital.
With the death of his wife on 19 July 1884, Jewell retired and was replaced by George Temple-Poole then working in Ceylon. He died on 1 June 1891 and is buried in the East Perth Cemeteries near St Bartholomew’s Church another one his many designs.

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Bassemberg

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
Bassemberg (German: Bassenberg) is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Alsace region of north-eastern France.
The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bassembergeois or Bassembergeoises.
The commune has been awarded one flower by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom.

Bassemberg is located 1 km south-west of Villé and 12 km north-west of Sélestat. The commune covers 178 hectares and is divided into two distinct areas separated by the valley of Giessen:
The village is 280 metres above sea level at the foot of the slope of the Honel. Its location close to Giessen does not protect it from flooding of the river.
Access to the commune is by the D39 road from Villé]] in the north-east which passes through the commune and continues to Fouchy. The D97 from Neuve-Église also passes through the south of the commune and continues to Fouchy.
The Giessen river forms part of the southern border as it flows to the east through the village and continues east to join the Ill north of Muttersholtz.
A list of online mapping systems can be displayed by clicking on the coordinates (latitude and longitude) in the top right hand corner of this article.

The commune lies in the coal basin of the valley of Villé.
In 1361 the area was called Bassenberg and became Bassemberg by the 18th century. The name may have come from an old German name Badubald meaning “the brave”. Other interpretations may apply “der basse” meaning “wild boar”: in this case a mountain boar.
Bassemberg appears as Bassemtrery on the 1750 Cassini Map and does not appear at all on the 1790 version.
The village was probably built in the Middle Ages on the ancient road connecting Villé to Saint-Dié-des-Vosges. The locality is mentioned for the first time in 1361 while it was in the hands of Frédéric de Cuntzmann de Hattstatt from a powerful Alsatian noble family. The village was probably formed around a mill and a bridge over the Scheer d’Urbeis. A statement from 1453 mentions a forest without mentioning vast grasslands around which for centuries serve as pretexts for many lawsuits with the neighbouring villages of Lalaye, Charbes, Fouchy, and Villé.
After the end of conflicts that devastated the region (Armagnacs, War of the Peasants, Swedish War) Bassemberg adopted a regulation containing no less than 29 articles. This was in order to regulate rural policing and precisely specified rights to the forest, the vines, the shepherds, the horses, cattle, pigs, chickens, geese, and even dogs. It was so precise that “any individual, married or not, who wants to keep household shall, as a good citizen, submit to legal obligations otherwise he must leave the village”.
In the 19th century Bassemberg had a small Jewish community which did not exist at the census of 1784 but had 21 people in 1850. A synagogue was established in 1832. Thereafter the small community moved to Villé.
The First World War transformed the life of the village which was on the route of the “Londonbahn” that ran from June 1917 until the armistice of 11 November 1918. There was also a train station and a building that served as an arms and equipment warehouse to be carried on the front line at Bassemberg. On 24 November 1918, a child from Bassemberg, Emile Waechter, 9 years old, was the victim of a fatal accident on the road while playing on a wagon with friends. During the First World War the village lost 13 inhabitants.
The village lost 12 inhabitants during the Second World War.
Or, a cross Azure cantoned with 20 billets the same, 5 per canton saltirewise.

List of Successive Mayors
(Not all data is known)
In 2010 the commune had 265 inhabitants

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. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)
Bassemberg developed along the road from Villé to Lalaye. The buildings followed the shape of the village street in an S shape. Their placement took into account the presence of the river. The buildings located on the floodplain have placed their storerooms on the ground floor with the living areas on the first floor. The houses have adopted the layout of Vosges type farms. The buildings are generally parallel to the street and, successively starting from the front: a gable wall, an arched entrance to the cellar, an access door to the house, an arched door to the barn, and a stable door. Some buildings date back to the 18th century. They are mostly modest sized buildings. Often due to lack of space they were joined in groups of two or three.
The commune has a number of buildings and sites that are registered as historical monuments:
The Church of Saint Quirin was probably built around an old chapel in the 16th or 17th century. Rebuilt in 1751, it was enlarged in 1867 when the village was experiencing a demographic expansion. Bassemberg was once a place of local pilgrimage with patients suffering from rheumatism coming to implore the help of Saint Quirin. The pilgrims came mostly from the Val de Villé and did not have the means to go to the village of Saint-Quirin in the Moselle where the saint’s head rested in a reliquary. Reflecting the size of the village, Bassemberg has only a modest church dedicated to Saint Quirin – a Roman martyr. A painting 2X3m to the right in the nave recalls the baptism of a Roman tribune converted to Christianity with his daughter Balbina by Pope Alexander I (105-117). First martyred on a gridiron they cut off successively his hand, foot, and tongue before finally being beheaded. The church is lit by stained glass from the workshops of Ott Brothers of Strasbourg. Two wooden pillars support a balcony where the first organ was installed in 1897. Classed in 1928 as an “old instrument and worthless”, it was removed in 1958 by Schwenkedel and replaced by a harmonium and electronic organ. The Church is registered as an historical monument. The Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects:
Bassemberg has nine Calvary (shrine)|Calvaries]] still in perfect condition including five dating to the 18th century. The calvary in the old cemetery is the best preserved. Moved by the municipality for development, it is well protected by the long wall wall of the church. A finely carved niche surrounds the shaft where the inscription: Meint Testament Soll Sein Am / End Amen Jesus Maria und Joseph (My testament to my end must be Jesus, Mary and Joseph Amen). Below on the pedestal is engraved the year 1737. The Calvary is surrounded by the names of the victims of the two world wars.
Another cross from 1737 stands on the municipal boundary between Bassemberg and Breitenau near a reservoir. It unfortunately suffers from soiling due to two trees. It is a cross-milestone: the letters BB (Bassemberg / Breitenau) are engraved on the stock on either side of a floral pattern. At the foot is a milestone with arms that have been damaged by time and perhaps in the French Revolution. The coat of arms of Rathsamhausen Zum Stein, the one time owner of the lordship of Villé and that of the Grand Chapter of Strasbourg Cathedral, owner of Comte-Ban and therefore Breitenau. Another milestone of the same type is a little further on the way.
The Cemetery (1860) is registered as an historical monument. The movable items in the Cemetery are also registered as historical objects.

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John Michael Wright

John Michael Wright (May 1617 – July 1694) was a portrait painter in the Baroque style. Described variously as English and Scottish, Wright trained in Edinburgh under the Scots painter George Jamesone, and acquired a considerable reputation as an artist and scholar during a long sojourn in Rome. There he was admitted to the Accademia di San Luca, and was associated with some of the leading artists of his generation. He was engaged by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, the governor of the Spanish Netherlands, to acquire artworks in Oliver Cromwell’s England in 1655. He took up permanent residence in England from 1656, and served as court painter before and after the English Restoration. A convert to Roman Catholicism, he was a favourite of the restored Stuart court, a client of both Charles II and James II, and was a witness to many of the political maneuverings of the era. In the final years of the Stuart monarchy he returned to Rome as part of an embassy to Pope Innocent XI.
Wright is currently rated as one of the leading indigenous British painters of his generation, largely for the distinctive realism in his portraiture. Perhaps due to the unusually cosmopolitan nature of his experience, he was favoured by patrons at the highest level of society in an age in which foreign artists were usually preferred. Wright’s paintings of royalty and aristocracy are included amongst the collections of many leading galleries today.

John Michael Wright, who at the height of his career would interchangeably sign himself “Anglus” or “Scotus”, is of uncertain origin. The diarist John Evelyn called him a Scotsman, an epithet repeated by Horace Walpole and tentatively accepted by his later biographer, Verne. However, writing in 1700, the English antiquarian Thomas Hearne claims Wright was born in Shoe Lane, London and, after an adolescent conversion to Roman Catholicism, was taken to Scotland by a priest. A London birth certainly seems supported by a baptismal record, dated 25 May 1617, for a “Mighell Wryghtt”, son of James Wright, described as a tailor and a citizen of London, in St Bride’s Church, Fleet Street, London.
What is known is that, on 6 April 1636, the 19-year-old Wright was apprenticed to George Jamesone, an Edinburgh portrait painter of some repute. The Edinburgh Register of Apprentices records him as “Michaell, son to James W(right), tailor, citizen of London”. The reasons for this move to Scotland are unclear, but may have to do with familial connections (his parents may have been London Scots) or the advent of plague in London. During his apprenticeship, Wright is likely to have lodged at the High Street tenement near the Netherbow Gate that served as Jameson’s workplace. The apprenticeship was contracted for five years, but may have been curtailed by Jameson’s imprisonment in late 1639. There is no record of any independent work by Wright from this period (his earliest known painting being a small portrait of Robert Bruce, 1st Earl of Ailesbury, painted in the early 1640s during his time in Rome).
It is also possible that Wright met his wife during his Scottish residency. Nothing is known of her, except from a statement of thirty years later which describes her as “related to the most noble and distinguished families of Scotland.” If this is accurate, it may explain how Wright was later able to find aristocratic patronage. All that is known for certain is that Wright had at least one child by her, a son, Thomas.
There is evidence to suggest that Wright went to France following his apprenticeship, however his eventual destination was Italy. It is possible that he arrived in Rome as early as 1642 in the entourage of James Alban Gibbes (a scholar of English descent), but he was certainly resident there from 1647. Although details of his time there are sketchy, his skills and reputation increased so much so that by 1648 he had become a member of the prestigious Accademia di San Luca (where he is recorded as “Michele Rita, pittore inglese”). At that time, the Accademia included numbers of established Italian painters as well as illustrious foreigners including the French Nicolas Poussin and Spaniard Diego Velázquez. On 10 February that year he was elected to the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon, a charitable body promoting the Roman Catholic faith through art, which hosted an annual exhibition in the Pantheon.
Wright was to spend more than ten years in Rome. During that time became an accomplished linguist as well as an established art connoisseur. He also became prosperous enough to build up a substantial collection of books, prints, paintings, gems and medals, including works attributed to Mantegna, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian and Correggio. He acquired some forty paintings – perhaps as much through dealing as collecting. Richard Symonds, the amateur painter and royalist, catalogued Wright’s collection in the early 1650s (and interestingly designated him as “Scotus”).
In 1654, after a decade in Rome, Wright travelled to Brussels where his abilities were recognised by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria then governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Leopold employed him not as an artist, but as an advisor on antiquities. As the younger brother of the Emperor Ferdinand III and cousin of Philip IV of Spain, the Archduke had the wherewithal to amass a large collection of paintings and antiquities. Moreover, in the spring of 1655, the Archduke was enjoying a period of cordial relations with Oliver Cromwell, then Lord Protector of England. (Indeed, the two had been exchanging gifts of horses, and Leopold had provided Cromwell with choice tapestries and other artefacts for the refurbishment of the Palace of Whitehall. Cromwell also received an embassy from the Habsburgs congratulating him on his new office.) Since the execution of Charles I in 1649, Leopold had been purchasing artworks from the royal collections and those of various aristocrats, and, against this background, commissioned Wright to travel to London and acquire further specimens. A passport was issued to him as “‘Juan Miguel Rita, pintor Ingles, qua va a Inglaterra a procurar pinturas, medalas, antiguedades, y otras costa señaladas, que le hemosencargado…” to allow him to travel to England. The passport is dated 22 May 1655, and signed by the Archduke at Brussels, indicating that Wright had left Italy for Flanders by this time. (The addition of the saint’s name name, John, probably marks his conversion to Roman Catholicism at some time prior.)
As one on an official mission, Wright would probably have offered greetings to Leopold’s ambassador extraordinary in London, the Marqués de Lede, and to Alonso de Cárdenas, the regular Habsburg ambassador, who had also been engaged since 1649 in art procurement for the Spanish Monarch. The lack of records means that the timing and duration of this visit remain uncertain. However, de Lede left in late June, and de Cárdenas a few weeks later – as relations between Cromwell and the Habsburgs deteriorated – so Wright probably arrived back in Flanders, with any acquisitions he had made, just in time to learn of the Archduke’s impending departure – and that of his huge art collection – from Brussels in the autumn of 1655. However, after the relocation of his patron to Vienna, Wright again visited London. On 9 April 1656 he passed through Dover, and the register of visitors indicates:
Michael Wright Englishman landed at Dover the 9th present out of the Pacquet boat from Dunkerque and came to London on the 12th and lodgeth at the house of Mrs Johnston in Weldstreet in the parish of Gyles in the fields in Middlesex and saith that having exercised the Art of Picture drawing in France & Italy & other parts the greatest part of his life, he intendeth shortly to returne to Italy where he left his family
Perhaps tactfully, the record glosses Wright’s employment in Flanders, (euphemistically referred to as “other parts”) as England and the Habsburgs were now at open war, and it fails to mention his membership of the Accademia di San Luca, which would have identified him as a Roman Catholic.
Whatever his intentions, Wright did not return to Italy, rather he was joined in England by his family soon after. Despite his Roman Catholicism and the strong Protestantism of the Protectorate (1653–1659), Wright seems to have been able to find prestigious work. Indeed, Waterhouse speaks of him engaging in “the most deliberate and unblushing toadying to Cromwell” in his 1658 painting of a small posthumous portrait of Elizabeth Claypole, Oliver Cromwell’s daughter (now in the National Portrait Gallery). This is an allegorical portrait depicting Elizabeth as Minerva, leaning on a carved relief representing the goddess springing from the head of Jove with the motto “Ab Jove Principium” – an allusion to Cromwell himself, whose cameo portrait she holds. Seemingly, he was also willing to work the other side of the political divide: in 1659 he painted Colonel John Russell who was a player in the “Sealed Knot” conspiracy to restore Charles II to the throne. That particular portrait is regarded by at least one critic as Wright’s “masterpiece”.
After the restoration of Charles II in 1660, Wright’s Roman Catholicism became less of a handicap, due to the King’s preference for religious toleration. Never a good businessman, Wright encountered some financial difficulties and King Charles granted him the privilege of disposing of his collection of Old Masters by means of a lottery. The King himself acquired 14 of the paintings. By the early 1660s Wright had established a successful studio in London, and was described by diarist John Evelyn as “the famous painter Mr Write”. Later, the Great Plague of London (1665) drove Wright out to countryside, where he painted at least three members of the Catholic family of Arundell of Wardour. Ironically, in the next year, the Great Fire of London (1666) was to be of benefit to him, when he received one of the City of London’s first new artistic commissions to paint twenty-two full length portraits of the so-called ‘Fire Judges’ (those appointed to assess the property disputes arising from the fire). These paintings, completed in 1670, hung in London’s Guildhall until it was bombed during World War II; today only two (those of Sir Matthew Hale and Sir Hugh Wyndham) remain in the Guildhall Art Gallery the remainder having been destroyed or dispersed.
Charles II, who promoted a number of Roman Catholics at court, granted Wright a measure of royal art patronage. In 1661, soon after the coronation, he painted a formalised portrait of the monarch, seated in front of a tapestry representing the Judgement of Solomon, wearing St. Edward’s Crown, the robes of the Garter, and carrying the orb and sceptre. Wright was also commissioned to paint an allegorical ceiling for the King’s bedchamber at Whitehall Palace, and he was further appointed in 1673 to the office of “picture drawer in ordinary”, allowing him to exercise his right to sign his pictures “Pictor Regis”. However, to his disappointment, he did not receive the coveted office of King’s Painter, which was held in the 1660s by Sir Peter Lely alone. In contrast to Wright’s sympathetic realism, and carefully observed landscape backgrounds, Lely had a more glamorous style, favoured by the court, and based on Van Dyck’s pre-Civil War style. This prompted the diarist Samuel Pepys to remark, after an enjoyable visit to Lely’s studio, “thence to Wright’s the painters: but Lord, the difference that is between their two works”.
Unlike Lely, who was knighted, Wright never received significant recognition from King Charles. However, at least one admirer thought he did deserve it. In 1669, Wright and the miniaturist Samuel Cooper had met Cosimo III de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Cosimo later called at Wright’s studio where he commissioned a portrait of the Duke of Albemarle from Wright. On 3 March 1673, perhaps some time after Wright had painted his state picture of Charles II (now in the Royal Collection), a strange letter was sent from an obscure “Mairie Lady Hermistan” (evidently a fellow Roman Catholic) to Cosimo, asking him to intercede with the King to grant Wright a baronetcy. However, nothing came of the request.
As antipathy towards Catholics intensified in London from the late 1670s, Wright spent more time working away from court. He painted six family portraits for Sir Walter Bagot of Blithfield in Staffordshire in 1676/7. In 1678, he removed to Dublin for a number of years, perhaps due to the anti-Catholic hysteria generated by Titus Oates’s Popish Plot. Here, still styling himself “Pictor Regis”, he painted “The Ladies Catherine and Charlotte Talbot”, which is today in the National Gallery of Ireland. He also painted two full-lengths portraits of costumed chieftains, the “Sir Neil O’Neill” (c. 1680), now in the Tate Collection, and the “Lord Mungo Murray” (c.1683), now in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. Sir Neil O’Neill was a fellow Roman Catholic, also in exile in Dublin. Wright portrayed him in the dress costume of an Irish chieftain, with suit of rare Japanese armour at his feet. The significance of this armour is that it is thought to be a coded symbol of a triumph over the persecutors of Roman Catholicism, of whom, at that time, the Japanese were notorious. The portrait of Mungo Murray (the 5th son of the Royalist Marquis of Atholl) is notable for being considered one of the first instance of Scottish tartan being portrayed in art.
In 1685, when the openly Roman Catholic James II ascended the throne, Wright was able to return to royal service. However, significantly, James did not employ Wright as an artist, but gave him the “time consuming and futile post” of steward on a diplomatic embassy. He was appointed as steward to Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine husband of Barbara Villiers, the late King’s mistress. Wright’s knowledge of Rome and of the Italian language may have played a part in this, as Castlemaine was dispatched, in 1686, on an embassy to Pope Innocent XI to demonstrate that England could become a player on the Roman Catholic side in impending European conflicts. Wright’s role in the embassy was to oversee the production of elaborate coaches, costumes and decorations for the procession, which secured a papal audience in January 1687. He also arranged a stupendous banquet for a thousand guests in the Palazzo Doria Pamphilj, complete with sugar sculptures and a large state portrait of James II. While in Rome, Wright published an illustrated Italian account of the embassy, dedicated to the Duchess of Modena and, on his return, an English version was published in October 1687, dedicated to her daughter Queen Mary.
Wright’s career came to an end in 1688 with the expulsion of King James II during the Glorious Revolution. He seems to have accepted the inevitable end of his royal favour with the accession to the throne of the Protestant William of Orange. He lived on, in relative poverty, for a further six years until 1694. In March of that year, he made a will leaving his house in St Paul’s parish to his niece Katherine Vaux. His collection of drawings, prints and books were left to his nephew, the painter Michael Wright; however a codicil to the will stated that the books were to be sold on behalf of his son Thomas, who was then abroad. The books were auctioned on 4 June and on 1 August 1694, John Michael Wright was buried at St Martin-in-the-Fields.
Much of the scholarly appreciation of Wright’s work is fairly recent. In 1982, an exhibition of his work: ‘John Michael Wright – The King’s Painter’ – in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery – led to a renewed interest in his contributions, and the catalogue (edited by Sara Stevenson and Duncan Thomson) re-wrote and uncovered much of the known biographical details. New works continue to be discovered and previously known ones re-attributed to him. Wright is now viewed as amongst the most successful of seventeenth-century Britain’s indigenous artists, and is rated alongside contemporaries such as Robert Walker and William Dobson. One modern exhibition catalogue described him as “the finest seventeenth century British-born painter”. Certainly, he was one of the few who painted the elite aristocracy of his day, and was responsible for some of the most magnificent royal portraiture surviving. This achievement is particularly significant in an age where even British patrons had tended to favour foreign artists like Holbein and Van Dyck, and would continue to favour immigrants such as Lely and Kneller. Indeed, part of the reason for Wright’s success is recognised as being his unusually cosmopolitan training: no prior British artist had so much exposure to European influence. During his Italian sojourn, and his participation in the Accademia di San Luca, not only had Wright collected works attributed to continental giants like Michelangelo, Raphael and Titian, he had also been influenced by, and even copied, much of their tone and style.
In his field and day, Wright was certainly eclipsed by his rival the more prolific Lely, to whom he is often compared. One critic, Millar, observes that any comparisons undertaken would “ruthlessly expose Wright’s weaknesses and mannerisms” but that positively “they would also demonstrate his remarkable independence

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, his unfailing integrity and charm, the sources of which must partly lie in his unusual origins, fragmented career and attractive personality”. Millar suggests that a particularly useful comparison can be made between Lely and Wright’s respective portrayals of the Duchess of Clevland (Barbara Villiers) (above). Whereas Lely portrayed her as a “full-blown and palpably desirable strumpet”, the more seriously minded Wright, who was not really in sympathy with the morality of the new court and its courtesans, rendered a more puppet-like figure.
However, even if Lely was considered the more masterly and fashionable of the two in seventeenth-century Britain, Wright is generally accepted as portraying the more lively and realistic likenesses of his subjects, a fact that reinforces Pepys’s observation that Lely’s work was “good but not like”. Neither should Wright’s realism be confused with a prudishness; as can be seen, for example, in his portrait the lady, thought to be Ann Davis (right). The picture, with the sitter’s clothing left undone and her modesty barely preserved by a red drape, has been described as exhibiting a fresh – even risky – reality: erotic by contemporary standards. Whereas Wright’s contemporaries might have used the ‘disguise’ of presenting the sitter in the guise of a classical goddess to protect against accusation of salaciousness, Wright’s portrait rather depends on his realism, notably in his flesh tones, and depth.

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Manasi Pradhan

Manasi Pradhan is an Indian women activist and author who received the Rani Lakshmibai Stree Shakti Puraskar in 2013. Along with Sister Mary Prema, head of the Missionaries of Charity, she won the ‘Outstanding Women Award’ in 2011 from the United Nation’s UN Women and National Commission for Women.
She is the founder of Nirbhaya Vahini and OYSS Women, and heads the Honour for Women National Campaign, a nationwide movement to end violence against women in India. She is also serving on the panel of Central Board of Film Certification (Censor Board) for India. She is a member of the International Governing Council of World Women Organization (WWO) and Inquiry Committee of the National Commission for Women.

Pradhan was born to a poor family in the village of Ayatapur, in Khordha district, Odisha. She was the eldest among two daughters and a son born to Hemalata Pradhan and Godabarish Pradhan. Her father was an agriculturist and mother a house wife

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She travelled 15 km daily to the only school in the entire region, to emerge as the first woman in her village to earn a law degree.
After completing her schooling from Patitapaban High School in Gambharimunda, the family shifted to Puri for her college education. She earned a B.A. in Economics from Government Women’s College, Puri, and M.A. in Odia literature from Utkal University. She obtained Bachelor of Laws from G.M. Law College, Puri.
Manasi Pradhan is an author and poet. Her fourth book ‘Urmi-O-Uchchwas’ has been translated into eight major languages.

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